It is a chronic, disabling systemic disease characterized by inflammation of the lining (synovium) of the joints. This leads to progressive damage to the joints resulting in pain, loss of function and disability. About 0.8% of the UK adult population is affected. Any joint may be affected but involvement of feet and hands is more common.
Plantar fasciitis (fasciopathy) is the commonest cause of heel pain. The mean age of symptoms in the late 50s. The mean age in athletes is about 10 years younger. The condition is rarely seen under the age of 20 or in extreme old age. Male:female ratio is about 1:2. It is commoner in the obese, in those standing for prolonged periods at work and working on a hard surface.
This is a feeling of giving way in the ankle, insecurity or repeated sprains. It generally develops following twisting injury or sprained ankle. Usually the “giving way” occurs while walking or doing other activities, but it can also happen when you’re just standing. Many athletes, as well as others, may suffer from chronic ankle instability following twisting injury to ankle or going over an ankle.
Ankle injuries are very common in athletes and individuals performing physical work; often resulting in severe pain and impaired mobility. Pain after ankle injuries can either be from a torn ligament (ankle sprain) or broken bone (ankle fracture). An ankle fracture is a painful condition where there is a break in one or more bones forming the ankle joint.
A stress fracture is described as a small crack in the bone which occurs from an overuse injury of a bone. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked or stressed, they are unable to absorb the stress and when this happens the muscles transfer the stress to the bone which results in stress fracture.
The talus is a small bone at the ankle joint that connects the heel bone and the shinbones, enabling up and down movement of the foot. Fractures in the talus bone may occur due to a fall from a great height, motor vehicle accident or sports injury.
The ankle is one of the most common sites for acute musculoskeletal injuries, and ligament sprains account for 75 percent of ankle injuries. Acute ankle trauma is responsible for up to 30 percent of sports-related injuries in young athletes. About half of ankle sprains have the potential to cause chronic problems.
Lesser toe deformity is an abnormality in the anatomy of your toe that occurs as a result of imbalance between the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Lesser toes in your foot are those other than the big toes and together stabilise your foot while standing and help in balancing the body.
Bunion (or Hallux Valgus) is one of the most common forefoot deformity. The bone under the big toe displaces turning the big toe towards the smaller toes. This shifting of the bones causes a bony prominence on the side of the foot called Bunion. Bunions may run in families. There is increased risk of developing a Bunion where your parent or grandparent had one.
A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the ankle joint, or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump. Most commonly, it occurs when you participate in sports, or jump or run on a surface that is irregular.